Thousands took to Lisbon's streets to demand better living conditions at a time high inflation is making it even tougher for people to make ends meet.
At the protest, which was organised by the 'Fair Life' movement, Vitor David, a 26-year-old programmer, said he would like to move back to Lisbon one day but had to live further out because of how expensive it was to rent in the city. "It comes to a point in our lives that we have no hope," he said, adding that he had already pondered moving to a wealthier European country. "It's very hard."
"We are here so our voice is heard," said Jose Reis, who recently graduated from university but is still unemployed.
The 'Fair Life' movement, which was created by people who live in Lisbon's poorer outskirts, says those who were already the most vulnerable before inflation soared were the ones being the hardest hit by the ongoing cost of living crisis.
They want higher wages, a cap on the prices of essential goods and government action on housing.
Portugal announced last week a hefty package of measures to tackle the housing crisis but rights groups said the proposals would mean little if authorities continued to promote other policies to attract wealthy foreigners to the country, such as the Digital Nomads Visa introduced in October.
Portugal is one of Western Europe's poorest countries, with government data showing more than 50% of workers earned less than 1,000 euros ($1,054.60) per month last year. The monthly minimum wage is 760 euros.
Low wages and high rents make Lisbon the world's third-least viable city to live in. Portugal's 8.3% inflation rate has exacerbated the problem. House prices in Portugal rose 18.7% in 2022, the biggest increase in three decades, and rents have also increased significantly in part due to a speculative property bubble.
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